Edward C Prust
1891 - 1978
The Mappin Terraces, London Zoo
Pen and ink, signed top right
Image size: 10 x 13 inches
Prust was a prolific artist around the time of the Second World War, specialising in scenes of London. He was a student at the Chelmsford School of Science and Art.
His subject here, the Mappin Terraces of London Zoo, were opened in 1913. It originally housed bears, penguins, sheep, goats and wild boar, some of which are depicted in this work. The enclosure is now used for the Australasian species.
Norman Wilkinson CBE PRI
1878 – 1971
Oil on canvas, signed lower right
Image size: 30 x 40 inches (76 x 102 cm)
Exhibited at the Royal Academy 1955
Norman Wilkinson was a British artist in oil, watercolour and dry point, usually of marine subjects. An illustrator and poster artist, he also made an important contribution in both World Wars in the field of camouflage, namely dazzle camouflage.
Educated at Berkhamsted School and St Paul's Cathedral choir school, he had little training in art but largely developed his style through his maritime career. In 1898 he started contributing to The Illustrated London News and The Illustrated Mail which was the start of a long association.
In Paris in 1899 he studied figure painting but was already set upon working on marines. With his love of the sea he travelled extensively including visits to Spain, Germany, Italy, Malta, Greece, Aden, Bahamas, United States, Canada, and Brazil. He was elected R.I. in 1906. During World War I he served at the Dardanelles, on submarine patrol in the Mediterranean, and on a minesweeper in the English Channel. One of his paintings was on the Titanic when it sank.
During World War I, while serving in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, he was assigned to submarine patrols in the Dardanelles, Gallipoli and Gibraltar, and, beginning in 1917, to a minesweeping operation at HMNB Devonport. In April 1917, German submarines (called U-boats) achieved unprecedented success in torpedo attacks on British ships, sinking nearly eight per day. In his autobiography, Wilkinson remembers the moment when, in a flash of insight, he arrived at what he thought would be a way to respond to the submarine threat (Wilkinson 1969, p. 79). He decided that, since it was all but impossible to hide a ship on the ocean (if nothing else, the smoke from its smokestacks would give it away), a far more productive question would be: How can a ship be made to be more difficult to aim at from a distance through a periscope? In his own words, he decided that a ship should be painted "not for low visibility, but in such a way as to break up her form and thus confuse a submarine officer as to the course on which she was heading" (Wilkinson 1969, p. 79). After initial testing, Wilkinson's plan was adopted by the British Admiralty, and he was placed in charge of a naval camouflage unit, housed in basement studios at the Royal Academy of Arts. There, he and about two dozen associate artists and art students (camoufleurs, model makers, and construction plan preparators) devised dazzle camouflage schemes, applied them to miniature models, tested the models (using experienced sea observers), and prepared construction diagrams that were used by other artists at the docks (one of whom was Vorticist artist Edward Wadsworth) in painting the actual ships.
In early 1918 Wilkinson was assigned to Washington, D.C. for a month, where he served as a consultant to the U.S. Navy, in connection with its establishment of a comparable unit (headed by Harold Van Buskirk, Everett Warner, and Loyd A. Jones)(Hartcup 1980; Behrens 2002, 2009; Wilkinson 1969).
After World War I, there was some contention about who had originated dazzle painting. When Wilkinson applied for credit to the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors, he was challenged by several others. At the end of a legal procedure, he was formally declared the inventor and awarded monetary compensation (Wilkinson 1969, pp. 94–95).
As a poster designer, Wilkinson reached his highest artistic level. His posters were well-planned and executed in broad tones of colour with a skilful use of black to strengthen the design. He made his first poster (of the Irish steamer crossing from Holyhead to Dublin) in 1905. It was the first to illustrate the product as just one element of a broader landscape and its revolutionary design was a major influence in the development of the pictorial poster. Wilkinson went on to organise the celebrated commissioning of poster designs from members of the Royal Academy for the London Midland and Scottish Railway company in the 1920s. Through the dissemination of his posters to railway stations, schools, and government offices throughout the world, he became one of the most familiar artists in the British Empire.
He was elected Hon. Marine Painter to the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1919, P.R.I. in 1937. He was knighted in 1948 and appointed a CBE in 1948. Wilkinson created a painting titled "The Approach to Plymouth Harbour" for the smoking room of the RMS Titanic, which sank with the ship.
Wilkinson is one of the finest marine painters of this century. Prolific and long-lived, Norman Wilkinson led an active and adventurous life until his death in 1971. A regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy, he was president of the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours and a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters. His work can be found in many public and private collections, some listed below. He painted a record of the major sea battles of the Second World War and presented the series of 54 paintings to the nation; they are kept at the National Maritime Museum.
He raised the status of the poster painter and the quality of the art poster, and persuaded seventeen other RA artists to contribure to the genre.
Museums & Galleries
Royal Academy, Royal Society of British Artists, Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, Royal Institute of Oil Painters, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Abbey Gallery, Royal Society of Artists, Birmingham, Beaux Arts Gallery, Imperial War Museum, National Maritime Museum, National Railway Museum and the Ulster Museum.
Wilkinson, N. (1969), “A Brush with Life”. London: Seeley Service. Wilkinson, N. (1915) “The Dardanelles”, London
Leslie Ernest Parkinson
1903 - 2001
A Willow Tree
Oil on board, initialled and dated 1930 top left
Image size: 10 x 12 inches
Parkinson was born in Islington in 1903, the son of Arthur and Ann. He married Edith Richardson, the daughter of the England fast bowler Tom Richardson, in 1929. He pursued a career as a civil servant.
Parkinson mainly painted in oils. He exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters.
A London Station
Pastel on Paper Signed with monogram and dated 1975, lower right
Image size: 9 x 12 ½ inches
Acid free mount
Peter Gardner was born in London in 1921.
He studied at the Hammersmith School of Art between 1935 and 1938, before serving in Italy and in the European campaign during WWII. He returned to Hammersmith in 1947, and graduated in 1950. He then attended the London Institute of Education where he was awarded the Art Teacher's Diploma.
Gardner taught art at West Norwood School and became Head of Art at Plaistow Grammar School as well as teaching at Fulham and South Kensington Adult Education Institute. He exhibited at the Trafford Gallery in London in 1965, and then many others, including the Royal Academy, the ROI and the New English Art Club.
He retired from teaching in 1979 and moved to Dorset, where he is still painting today.
Pastel on Paper
Signed with monogram and dated 1974, lower right
Image size: 7 ½ x 7 inches
Acid free mount
Peter Gardner was born in London in 1921. He studied at the Hammersmith School of Art between 1935 and 1938, before serving in Italy and in the European campaign during WWII. He returned to Hammersmith in 1947, and graduated in 1950. He then attended the London Institute of Education where he was awarded the Art Teacher's Diploma. Gardner taught art at West Norwood School and became Head of Art at Plaistow Grammar School as well as teaching at Fulham and South Kensington Adult Education Institute.
He exhibited at the Trafford Gallery in London in 1965, and then many others, including the Royal Academy, the ROI and the New English Art Club. He retired from teaching in 1979 and moved to Dorset, where he is still painting today.
1894 - 1955
A Distant View of Salisbury
Oil on canvas, signed lower right and dated '30
Image size: 19 ½ x 25 ½ inches
Eric Pitt Brown was born in 1894 in Salisbury. His father was William Lewis Brown 1864-1922, who became a "portrait painter and artist" around 1906, having previously run a builders' merchant business.
Eric had an older sister, Dorothy, also an artist (especially watercolours) and a younger brother, Bernard, who became a successful architect in Salisbury.He also had a daughter, Zoë Napier Brown 1926-2011, who was a good painter though she worked in the field of social services.
Eric Brown always painted in oil views of his local Salisbury - the works have a innocence about them that captures the English countryside perfectly.
1884 - 1937
Salute to the New Year, Cannes
Image size: 12 x 18 inches
Exhibited at the Redfern Gallery in 1937, number 54
Philpot was born in Clapham, London, but the family moved to Herne in Kent shortly afterwards. He grew up to be a gay man and a practising Christian who converted to Roman Catholicism.
Philpot studied at the Lambeth School of Art in 1900 where he was taught by Philip Connard, and at the Academie Julian in Paris.
One of the leading portraitists of his day, Philpot became an establishment artist, made wealthy through lucrative commissions. He was elected to the Royal Academy of Arts in 1923.
However things were to change. In 1933 the Academy rejected his paintings The Great God Pan and Guardian of the Flame because of their explicit sexual content which led to a dramatic downturn in his popularity.
Philpot’s artistic character also changed. Tensions between his public life of strict Christian observance and academic painting, and his private homosexuality, and desire for artistic experiment, precipitated a crisis in his career. He was, primarily, an observer of the human form, and risked public censure by depicting sexuality.
His loss of commissions led to financial hardship for the rest of his life. He died of a stroke in 1937, and his lover, Vivian Forbes, committed suicide the day after his funeral. Philpot is buried in St Peter's churchyard, Petersham.
Oil on board, signed lower right
Image size: 16 x 13 inches
8 Duncan Terrace
Oil on canvas, dated 1977
Image size: 16 x 19 inches
Dean was born in Birkenhead and studied at the Laird School of Art and then Bristol Polytechnic School of Art and Design.
He is perhaps best known for his watercolours depicting the human body, and his works have been exhibited widely across the world.Graham Dean now lives and works in Brighton.
Graham Dean lived in the top floor studio flat of this townhouse in the Angel, Islington. His landlord was the American writer Jay Landesman, a renowned figure in the 'Swinging London' milieu of the Sixties. This home was the venue for hundreds of parties typical of the era.
Dean lived in the flat for a number of years and painted this image as part-payment for his rent. He describes the house as being 'Bohemian and fairly notorious'. During his time there he witnessed visits by a number of famous faces - he particularly recalls meeting Tom Waits and the Sex Pistols. Jay Landesman published a magazine about the Beat Generation during the sixties and Dean also recalls some of the poets and musicians from that movement coming to the house.
The Landesmans were the parents of Miles and Cosmo. Cosmo Landesman's book Landesmania charts their history at this address. He and his wife, the notorious journalist Julie Burchill, took over the attic flat when Graham Dean moved out.
Doris Clare Zinkeisen
1897 - 1991
Corps de Ballet
Oil on canvas, signed bottom left
Image size: 26 ¾ x 30 ¾ inches
Doris Clare Zinkeisen was a painter, illustrator, costume and theatrical designer and commercial artist. She studied at Harrow School of Art, and then won a Scholarship to the Royal Academy schools in 1917.
In London she shared a studio with her sister Anna and during the 1920's and 30's both embarked on a wide variety of artistic projects including costume, poster and advertisement design, mural painting and traditional painting. Doris married in 1927 and by 1929 had exhibited at The Royal Academy and won medals at the Paris Salon. In 1936 Doris contributed murals to the RMS Queen Mary and in 1940 to the RMS Queen Elizabeth. Her lifestyle is reflected in her art, a mixture of society portraiture, animal portraiture including horses and their riders, and genre scenes set in the parks of London and Paris showing women in beautiful gowns taking tea, walking their dog and riding horses.
Doris rose to major prominence for her costume design during this period. Although she only worked on a handful of films, all of them are now regarded as British classics of the era. They included Bitter Sweet, Peg of Old Drury, Victoria the Great and the 1936 American screen version of Show Boat. She worked extensively on theatre productions with Noel Coward.
In 1941 both sisters were recruited as official war artists for the North West Europe Commission of the Joint War Organisation of the British Red Cross Society and the Order of St John. Early on in the war they worked as auxiliary nurses in St. Mary's hospital, Paddington. During this period they would work in the mornings then spend the afternoons painting in a disused operating theatre, recording the events of the day.
By the middle of the 1940's it is known that Doris was touring Belgium, France and Germany in her capacity as war artist. In 1945 she arrived at Belsen Concentration Camp immediately after its liberation, in time to document the movement of 28,000 former inmates, attempts to care for and rehabilitate them and the aftermath of the operation in which 13,000 of them that were beyond help died.
Doris later wrote that "the shock of Belsen was never to be forgotten." It is testament to her versatility as an artist that she was able to produce work based on the things she had seen. Her palette had gradually darkened from the pastel pinks and blues in her park scenes of the 20's and 30's, becoming grimmer and more washed out towards the end of the 30's. In her war paintings she communicates in the muted greys, browns and ochres of her contemporaries such as Eric Ravilious and Stanley Spencer. Her 1945 paintings seem almost dead - full of black, grey and brown.
Doris was tortured for the rest of her life by her experiences at Belsen. Her son described the "heart rendering" agony of the letters she wrote to her husband while working at the camp. She confided to her family that the sights she had seen had been terrible, but it was the smell of the place that had stayed with her. After the war she returned to London and resumed her work as a theatrical designer and artist, albeit on a lesser scale, until 1972. She died in 1991.
A small selection of the Zinkeisen war work can be seen by searching the online collection of the Imperial War Museum. The bulk of her work from this period today resides in government collections.
Born circa 1944
Oil on board
Signed and dated April '77 verso
Image size: 25 x 25 inches
Bromfield studied at Camberwell School of Art in the early 1960's, under the tutelage of Frank Auerbach and Euan Uglow.
He has exhibited in Germany, Denmark and the USA, as well as all over the UK.